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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2022
Volume 13 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 195-294

Online since Saturday, September 24, 2022

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Emergence of artificial intelligence in dentistry: Are clinicians replaceable? Highly accessed article p. 195
Ritu Duggal
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Rotary versus manual instrumentation for root canal preparation in primary teeth: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials Highly accessed article p. 197
Reyhaneh Faghihian, Kiana Amini, Dana Tahririan
Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the scientific evidence on the effect of rotary versus manual instrumentation for root canal preparation in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Search terms were selected based on Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and non-MeSH terms. Electronic database search of English published literature was performed in March 2020 within the following databases: Scopus, Cochrane, PubMed, and Embase. The risk of bias of selected studies was assessed by means of Cochrane collaboration tool. The heterogeneity level among the included studies was measured by I2 index. For statistical analysis of instrumentation time, standard mean difference (SMD) of continuous data was analyzed with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using the fixed-effects model. A random-effects model was used for analysis of odds ratio (OR) to assess the probability of optimal fill, underfill, and overfill obturations. Forest plots were applied to show the results and to estimate the effectiveness of rotary instrumentation. Results: Seven articles were selected for this review. The SMD in rotary techniques was 1.79 min less than manual techniques (95% CI: −2.56–−1.03 min) and had a significant P = 0.001. The OR of optimum quality was calculated to be 3.53 (95% CI: 1.79–6.97) in the rotary technique at P = 0.254. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this review, it can be asserted that rotary files decrease the instrumentation time and increase the rates of optimally filled canals in primary teeth. However, these files do not decrease the risk of underfilling and overfilling compared to manual files.
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A comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of novel surfactant-based endodontic irrigant Regimen's on Enterococcus faecalis Highly accessed article p. 205
Manikandan Ravinanthanan, Mithra N Hegde, Veena Shetty, Suchetha Kumari, Fahd Nasser Al Qahtani
Introduction: Irrigants play an important role in the eradication of microorganisms in the complex root canal system. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine (CHX), and iodine potassium iodide (IKI) have certain limitations despite their routine clinical use. Surfactant irrigants with antimicrobial properties can be a milestone in endodontics to overcome the drawbacks of conventional irrigants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of surfactants in comparison with routine endodontic irrigants on Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Primary irrigants NaOCl, CHX, IKI were prepared at concentrations of 5%, 2.5%, 2%, and 1%; while mixture of tetracycline acid and detergent (MTAD) (100%) served as control group. Surfactants such as cetrimide (CTR) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were prepared at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 2%. The direct contact assay was used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy after 5 min. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: In the primary group, only 5% CHX was significant over MTAD (P < 0.05). In the surfactant group, all concentrations of CTR and SDS (except 0.5%) were significant (P < 0.05) in killing E. faecalis over MTAD. Two percent CHX in combination with 0.5% CTR and 1% SDS had an effective kill percentage over 2% CHX and MTAD alone. Conclusion: Surfactant irrigant regimens can be used as adjuncts with CHX to overcome its clinical limitations and potentiate its substantivity, thereby enhancing clinical success in endodontics.
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Osteocalcin and Runx2 expression in anterior maxillary reconstructions using bone xenografts associated to bone marrow aspirate concentrate p. 211
Daniel Fernando Hergemöller, André Antonio Pelegrine, Paulo José Pasquali, Luis Guilherme Scavone de Macedo, Marcelo Lucchesi Teixeira, Peter Karyen Moy, Antonio Carlos Aloise
Background: It is known that a large number of mediators involved in osteogenesis can influence bone development and repair; however, whether these mediators could be used as markers of bone maturity has yet to be determined. Aim: To evaluate the expression of osteocalcin (OC) and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in bone biopsies obtained during the reconstruction of atrophic anterior maxillae using particulate bone xenografts with or without association of autogenous bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC). Materials and Methods: Ten patients were distributed into two groups (n = 5), according to the type of grafting material used: Control group (CG), particulate bone xenograft alone, and test group (TG), particulate bone xenograft combined with BMAC. A bone specimen was removed from the graft area 4 months after grafting, before implant placement. The specimens were processed and submitted to immunohistochemical analysis for detection of OC and Runx2. Histomorphometry was used to ascertain the percentage of stained areas in both groups. The Wilcoxon Mann–Whitney U-Test was used in the statistical analysis (P < 0.05). Results: The immunohistochemical analysis revealed a significantly higher OC expression in the TG than in the CG, namely 27.40 ± 1.34% and 11.40 ± 2.70%, respectively (P < 0.05), and a significantly higher Runx2 expression in the TG than in the CG, namely 2.80 ± 0.84% and 0.40 ± 0.55%, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The OC and Runx2 expression levels were higher when BMAC was associated with the bone xenograft than when it was not.
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Comparative evaluation of platelet-rich fibrin versus connective tissue grafting in treatment of gingival recession using pouch and tunnel technique: A randomized clinical study p. 217
Vatsala Chandra, Vivek Kumar Bains, Rajesh Jhingran, Ruchi Srivastava, Rohit Madan
Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the clinical efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and connective tissue grafting in the treatment of gingival recession (GR) using pouch and tunnel (P and T) technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 Class I or Class II GR defects in 17 patients were randomized treated with P and T with PRF (Group I, n = 20) and P and T with CTG (Group II, n = 20). The parameters measured were plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), horizontal gingival recession (HGR), vertical gingival recession (VGR), width of attached gingiva (WAG), width of keratinised gingiva (WKG), gingival thickness-mid buccal (GTMB), and gingival thickness interdental papilla (GTIP). Postsurgical discomfort level (PSDL), hypersensitivity score (HS), and patient esthetic score (PES) were recorded using visual analog scale (VAS). The PI, GI, PPD, CAL, HGR, VGR, WAG, WKG, GTMB, and GTIP were assessed at pretreatment (baseline) and 1-, 3-, and 6-month posttreatment. The PSDL, HS, and PES were assessed at baseline, day 10, 1, 3, and 6-month posttreatment. Results: P and T with PRF and CTG resulted in root coverage of 73.75% ± 7.80% and 70.83% ±8.26%, respectively. Patient response and acceptance for the surgical treatment modality showed less discomfort and better esthetics in Group I as compared to Group II. Conclusions: PRF treated sites were comparable to the gold standard CTG with better patient acceptance and a lesser invasive approach in terms of graft procurement.
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Soft tissue augmentation using de-epithelialized free gingival graft compared to single-line incision subepithelial connective tissue graft in the management of miller class I and II gingival recession: A randomized controlled clinical trial p. 227
Mohamed Mashaly, Noha A Ghallab, Weam Elbattawy, Azza Ezz Elarab
Aims: The purpose of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to clinically assess soft tissue augmentation and compare patients' morbidity and root coverage outcomes of coronally advanced flap (CAF) with subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) versus de-epithelialized free gingival graft (DFGG) in the management of Miller Class I and II gingival recession. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with Miller's Class I or II gingival recession (GR) defects were randomly assigned into two equal parallel groups treated with either CAF + SCTG, harvested using single-line incision technique (control), or CAF + DFGG (test). Gingival thickness (GT), recession depth, recession width, percentage of root coverage, keratinized tissue width, pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed postoperatively, including pain, stress, bleeding, and inability to chew. Patients' overall satisfaction and root coverage esthetic scores were recorded at 6 months. Results: Both groups demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in all clinical outcomes after 3 and 6 months compared to baseline. DFGG showed a statistically significant increase in GT after 6 months. No statistically significant difference was detected in other clinical outcomes between both groups at different time intervals. Both treatments achieved 92.9% complete root coverage. Patients treated with CAF + DFGG reported significantly higher stress and inability to chew scores after 2 weeks than those treated with SCTG. There were no significant differences in patient satisfaction between both groups. Conclusions: CAF + SCTG and CAF + DFGG were both effective and can be applied safely in treating Miller Class I and II GRs.
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Clinical evaluation of efficacy of triamcinolone acetonide with tacrolimus in the management of oral lichen planus: A pilot prospective observational study p. 236
Cheshta Walia, Neelakshi Singh Rallan, Anu Premkumar, Sudip Roy
Introduction: Lichen planus (LP) is a relatively common chronic, mucocutaneous disease of autoimmune origin, involves oral mucosa, skin, scalp, nails, and genital mucosa. The prevalence of oral LP (OLP) varies worldwide, commonly seen in middle-aged and elderly people. It usually presents as symmetrical and bilateral or multiple lesions with burning sensation (BS) sometimes accompanied by pain. Corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors have shown promising results in the treatment of OLP, but its chronic course and unpredictable exacerbations/remission continues to result in a high degree of morbidity. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (injection TA) combined with topical application of TA orabase and Tacrolimus (TAC) ointment for symptomatic cases of OLP. Materials and Methods: The prospective study included 52 symptomatic OLP patients to receive (0.5 ml) intralesional injection of TA once a week for the first 4 weeks followed by one injection in the 6th week along with TA mucosal paste (0.1%.) and TAC ointment (0.03%) in tapering dose till 8th week. The subjective symptoms including BS and pain were assessed on a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) and objective signs like size and site of the lesion were scored according to criterion scale modified by Thongprasom et al. Differences were compared after 8 weeks treatment course and follow-up observations were performed at 20th week to record any recurrent lesion. Results: 41 patients (78.8%) had complete remission of disease and 11 (21%) had shown partial improvement. The VAS scores for BS and pain improved significantly. Improvement was also noted with decrease in the average size of active lesions and the number of sites with treatment. The relapse was seen in 17 patients (41%) in the 20th week. Conclusion: TA combined with TAC is a valuable therapeutic option for the treatment of symptomatic OLP. Our findings suggest that patients have shown statistically significant improvement.
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Accuracy of patient-specific soft-tissue prediction algorithms for maxillomandibular surgery in class III patients p. 242
Shivam Y Mehta, Michael D Han, T Peter Tsay, Budi Kusnoto
Context: Improved esthetics is an important factor for most patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. Thus, a treatment simulation that can provide patients with a realistic view of the esthetic outcome after surgery is important in clinical practice. Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of simulations generated using algorithms specific for patient's type of malocclusion and surgical procedure compared to nonspecific algorithms. Settings and Design: A total of 36 patients (average age 18.41 years) who had undergone maxillary advancement and mandibular setback for Class III malocclusion were included. Subjects and Methods: The presurgical and postsurgical cone-beam computed tomography scans were used to generate the lateral cephalograms and the surgical simulations were created with the patient-specific algorithm (specific for Class III patients) and the nonspecific algorithm (default algorithm not specific for any particular malocclusion or type of surgery) using the treatment simulation feature in Dolphin Imaging software. The accuracy of the simulations was examined by comparing the soft-tissue changes in the surgical simulations with the postsurgical result. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS-software at 0.05 significance level. For the mean difference between the postsurgical and surgical-simulation landmarks, a paired sample t-test (Student's t-test) was performed. Results: Patient-specific algorithms were accurate in vertical prediction of lower lip, B', tip of nose, upper lip, and horizontal prediction of pogonion'. Whereas the nonspecific algorithm was accurate in the horizontal prediction of the lower lip, pogonion', and menton'. Conclusions: Patient-specific and nonspecific algorithms for generating surgical simulations showed different accuracy for vertical and horizontal predictions of the parameters.
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DNA Fragmentation and mRNA Expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, p53, p21 and HSP70 Genes in Nondysplastic and Dysplastic Oral Lichen Planus p. 249
Abhishek Jana, Jincy Thomas, Pratiti Ghosh
Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease. Apoptosis of the basal keratinocytes is a causative factor for OLP pathogenesis but the detailed mechanism of apoptosis among nondysplastic and dysplastic OLP lesions is yet unraveled. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the involvement of cellular DNA fragmentation and alteration in the expression of Bcl-2 and B-cell lymphoma extra-large (Bcl-xL), p53, p21 and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in nondysplastic and dysplastic OLP lesions. Materials and Methods: Untreated, fifteen OLP patients each with nondysplastic and dysplastic lesions were enrolled for this study. Their DNA fragmentation was analyzed by the agarose gel electrophoresis method. The mRNA expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, p53, p21 and HSP70 were measured using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Elevated DNA fragmentations were found in dysplastic lesions compared to nondysplastic type. Significantly higher expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, p53 and p21 were found in both types of OLP lesion compared to the control. Expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were significantly elevated in nondysplastic lesions, whereas significantly overexpression of p53 and p21 were found in dysplastic lesions. Anti-stress protein HSP70 was overtly expressed in dysplastic lesions compared to other groups. Conclusion: Reduced expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, with elevated DNA fragmentation, may be associated with increased apoptosis in dysplastic lesions which aid in the resolution of the chronic inflammatory process. Higher expression of p53 and p21 in dysplastic lesions reflect its malignant potentiality. Overexpression of HSP70 in dysplastic lesions is a useful marker for higher cellular stress.
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Evaluation of sagittal inclination of occlusal plane and horizontal condylar guidance using various anterior reference points on arcon and nonarcon articulators p. 255
Jayant N Palaskar, Nikhil P Joshi, Amit D Hindocha, Anuja P Gunjal, Ketaki D Balsaraf
Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different anterior reference points during facebow transfer, on sagittal inclination of occlusal plane (SIOP) and horizontal condylar guidance (HCG) values obtained on arcon and nonarcon articulators. Materials and Methods: Facebow records of 25 participants were made and transferred to Hanau Wide-Vue (WV) and Hanau H2 (H2) articulators using conventional indirect transfer (CIT), superior annular groove (SAG), and inferior annular groove (IAG) as anterior reference points. Maxillary casts were mounted on each articulator followed by mandibular mountings. Protrusive interocclusal record was used to determine HCG, and SIOP was measured as an angle between the occlusal plane of mounted maxillary cast and upper member of the articulator. Both, HCG and SIOP were measured on a digital lateral cephalogram and the values obtained were compared with previously determined values from both the articulators. Intergroup comparison was done by analysis of variance and pair-wise comparison by Tukey post hoc test. Results: Values of SIOP significantly (P = 0.00) changed on both the articulators when CIT, SAG, and IAG were the anterior reference points. The ratio of SIOP and HCG on both articulators was comparable to that of the cephalogram for CIT, IAG, but it was substantially low for SAG. Conclusions: The variation of anterior reference point changes the value of SIOP recorded on Hanau WV and H2 articulators; however, it had no effect on HCG values recorded on both the articulators. The angle between SIOP and HCG changed with variations in superior-inferior position of the mountings on both articulators.
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Shaping ability and buckling resistance of TruNatomy, WaveOne gold, and XP-Endo shaper single-file systems p. 261
Neveen Ali Shaheen, Nahla Gamal Eldin Elhelbawy
Objectives: The target of the current study was to evaluate and compare the shaping ability and buckling resistance of various single-file systems (TruNatomy [TRN], WaveOne gold [WOG], and XP-Endo Shaper [XPS]). Materials and Methods: Thirty recently extracted human first mandibular molars were chosen with severely curved mesiobuccal (MB) canals. Following access cavity preparation and determination of working length, teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) according to the instrumentation technique used, Group 1 (TRN), Group 2 (WOG), and Group 3 (XPS). Preinstrumentation and postinstrumentation, cone-beam computed tomography images were recorded at 3, 5, and 8 mm from the apex representing apical, middle, and coronal levels under the same circumstances, superimposed, and then canal transportation was determined using a particular equation. For buckling resistance calculation, files were loaded in the axial direction of the shaft and the maximum load was determined during the deflection of the file. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey test at 5% significance level were used to analyze data. Pearson's correlation between shaping ability and buckling resistance was performed. Results: XPS and TRN displayed significantly less canal transportation than WOG at the coronal and middle levels. While WOG recorded the highest value of buckling resistance, XPS recorded the least. Conclusions: XPS and TRN preserved the original curvature slightly better than WOG, while WOG reported the highest buckling resistance. There was a positive correlation between canal transportation and instrument resistance to buckle. Clinical Relevance: Preservation of the original shape of the canal after instrumentation is beneficial.
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mRNA expression of ezrin in gingival crevicular fluid and whole blood of gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients – A polymerase chain reaction study p. 267
Anju Cecil, Savita Sambashivaiah, Shivaprasad Bilichodmath, Rubin S John
Background: A comparative analysis of protein expression of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) obtained from healthy individuals and individuals with periodontal diseases would help to identify proteins involved in periodontal disease progression. Among the identified proteins, Moesin which is a disease-associated protein belongs to the ezrin-radixin-moesin protein family and was proved to play an important role in the recognition of oral bacteria contributing to the consequent development of inflammatory immune responses involved in periodontal disease development. Aim: The aim of the study is to quantify and compare mRNA expression levels of ezrin in GCF and whole blood of gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients were selected for the study and were divided into three groups as follows: Group 1 (20 participants with healthy gingiva), Group 2 (20 participants with gingivitis), and Group 3 (20 participants with chronic periodontitis). Clinical parameters such as gingival index, periodontal index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were assessed. GCF and blood samples were taken from these patients and assessed for the mRNA expression of ezrin using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The expression and mean relative quantification of mRNA expression of ezrin in GCF and blood were higher for periodontitis (18.32 ± 8.398, 19.34 ± 9.487) when compared to that of gingivitis (5.34 ± 3.609, 5.48 ± 4.428) and healthy individuals (2.33 ± 0.643, 3.47 ± 1.923) and they positively correlated with the clinical parameters. Conclusion: The increased expression of ezrin can be considered as a good indicator to assess the inflammatory activity in periodontitis and gingivitis.
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Treatment of fissure caries of children with severe rheumatic diseases with difficulty in opening the mouth p. 274
Alla Anatolyevna Skakodub, Adil Askerovich Mamedov, Oleg Ivanovich Admakin, Olesya Viktorovna Dudnik, Arina Sergeevna Chertikhina, Aleksandra Romanovna Beznosik
Background: Pediatric dentists face difficulties in treating tooth decay of children with difficulty in opening the mouth. This is especially true, as the main disease is accompanied by such symptoms as arthritis, osteoarthritis, myositis, myalgia, sclerosis, and oral atrophy. Aim: The aim was to increase the level of treatment of fissure tooth decay for children with rheumatic diseases, using the silicone key method (SKM). Materials and Methods: A dental examination of 82 children was carried out, with diagnoses: systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile systemic scleroderma, juvenile dermatomyositis, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Evaluation of the intensity of caries using indices: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT)(average). Assessment and measurement of the degree of mouth opening (MMO) by Sh. M. Batashvili. The SKM was used to treat fissure tooth decay. Results: During the dental examination of the oral cavity of all children with RD, multiple caries lesions were found. In the first age group of index indicators (DMFT) (on average) - 4.88, in the second age group DMFT (on average) - 7.58 - these values corresponded to high scores for the degree of dental caries, which requires frequent appointment to the dentist. Oral hygiene of children with difficult opening of the mouth is unsatisfactory, which leads to a rapid increase of caries. Restriction of moth opening <4 mm was found in 57 children with RD (69, 51%) that made it difficult to treat caries. Conclusion: Using SKM will improve the quality of caries treatment and provide a stable result of treatment in patients with difficulty opening the mouth in severe somatic pathologies.
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Targeted endodontic microsurgery: A guided approach – A report of two cases Highly accessed article p. 280
Smitha Reddy, Sravya Gadhiraju, Akram Quraishi, Shekhar Kamishetty
Targeted endodontic microsurgery combines a precisely designed three-dimensional (3D)-printed surgical guide in which the osteotomy site and angulation is defined preoperatively to avoid damaging anatomically important structures. The current endodontic microsurgical procedures have been progressing in pace with technological advances as a predictable alternative to nonsurgical treatment of persistent and recurrent apical periodontitis. The 3D-printed template has been used earlier in the guided endodontic procedure (access openings). The endodontic microsurgery utilizes the surgical microscope and microsurgical instruments which help in enhanced magnification, illumination, and visualization compared to conventional endodontic surgery. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) plays an important role in surgical endodontics as it helps in measuring the distance between the cortical plate and the apex, position of the roots within the bone, and the proximity of vital structures can be assessed. The true size, location, and extent of the periapical lesion can also be appreciated preoperatively. In the present cases, the guide allowed the clinicians to precisely reach the targeted tissues in a faster and more accurate manner with a more conservative and less traumatic treatment procedure. A 1-year CBCT follow-up of both cases showed complete 3D healing of the surgical site.
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Nonspecific cystic degeneration in craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: A rare finding p. 284
Vindhya Savithri, Rakesh Suresh, Mahija Janardhanan, Pramod Subash
Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a developmental pathology of the bones in which normal bone is replaced by fibrous tissue and immature bone. It can affect single bone (monostotic) or multiple bones (polyostotic), sporadically or in association with McCune-Albright syndrome, Jaffe-Lichtenstein syndrome, or Mazabraud syndrome. When multiple bones in the craniofacial region are affected, the term “craniofacial FD” is used. Nonspecific cystic degeneration occurring in FD of the jaws has rarely been reported in the literature. Here, we present a 52-year-old male patient who reported with a longstanding gradual expansion of the mandible unilaterally. Investigations revealed the presence of mixed radiolucent radioopaque appearance in the mandible and dense sclerotic multiple craniofacial bones. In addition, a lytic lesion in the mandible was appreciated. Histopathological examination of the mandible confirmed the diagnosis of FD with nonspecific cystic degeneration.
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Mandibular overdenture retained by telescopic crowns and ball attachments on semierupted premolars p. 289
Elisa C Knebel, Paulo C A Maccari, Rosemary S A Shinkai
This clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation with a mandibular overdenture retained by telescopic crowns and ball attachments on semierupted permanent teeth with a 5-year follow-up. A female patient used an old complete denture in the maxilla and was willing to extract her remaining mandibular teeth to have new dentures. The treatment included preservation of semierupted premolars because of the high surgical risk for mandibular fracture and paresthesia, a new maxillary complete denture, and a mandibular overdenture supported by combined telescopic crowns and ball attachments. The prosthetic rehabilitation restored function and esthetics with high patient satisfaction after 5 years in function.
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Rehabilitation of maxillary bilateral regional odontodysplasia in a 7-year-old child using modified essix retainer p. 292
M Divya Banu, V Krishna Priya, Shilpa Gaddam, Santosh Kumar Challa
Regional odontodysplasia (RO), also called ghost teeth, is a rare nonhereditary developmental dental anomaly affecting the epidermal and mesenchymal tissues associated with the development of tooth which can affect both primary and permanent dentition. It can affect the child's overall quality of life and sometimes may lead to skeletal malocclusion. Management of such patients requires a multidisciplinary approach. Essix retainers are being widely used as retention appliances. Various modifications of this appliance are also being attempted. Thus, this article aims to focus on the use of Essix retainer as an interim prosthesis by modifying it with the incorporation of pontics to manage partial edentulousness and mild orthodontic corrections in a 7-year-old child diagnosed with bilateral RO.
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