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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 359-367

Relationship of clinical features with candidal carriage in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case-control study

1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, PGIDS, Rohtak, Haryana, India
2 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Government Dental College and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Microbiology, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Anju Redhu
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, PGIDS, Rohtak - 124 001, Haryana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ccd.ccd_296_20

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Background and Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is extensively prevalent in India and South-East Asia owing to the habit of arecanut (AN) use. Epithelial atrophy, hyposalivation, and immune alterations in OSF may predispose to increased Candidal carriage. Stomatopyrosis in OSF can result from multiple causes, which may also include Candidal infection. Hence, this study is aimed to assess Candidal carriage, species characterization, salivary flow rate (SFR) and its relationship with the clinical features (stomatopyrosis and mouth opening [MO]) in OSF patients alongwith the response to antifungal treatment in patients with higher Candidal carriage. Methodology: In this case-control study, 60 OSF patients and 30 age- and sex-matched control subjects were enrolled. SFR was assessed using modified Schirmer test. Samples for Candidal assessment were collected with the oral rinse technique and cultured. The isolated yeast species were counted and identified based on Gram staining, germ tube test, and CHROMagar. Data were analyzed with Chi-square test, Pearson's correlation test, and one-way ANOVA test. Results: The distribution of mean visual analog scale (VAS) score, SFR and MO was significantly varied (P < 0.001) in the study and control groups. Candida was found to be present significantly (P = 0.048) in OSF group as compared to control group. Candida albicans was the predominant species. No statistically significant association was obtained regarding Candidal isolation and SFR, burning sensation and MO in OSF patients. Only 1 patient in the study group yielded a high Candidal carriage (>400 CFU/mL) and reported relief in burning sensation (VAS score) with antifungal therapy. Conclusions: OSF patients yielded a significant higher oral Candidal carriage. Although it was not found to be associated directly, its role as a “cause and effect” in SFR and clinical features (stomatopyrosis and MO) of OSF cannot be ignored.

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