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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 356-366

Evaluation of the bioactivity of surface modified polyetheretherketone (PEEK) as an implant material: An In Vitro study

1 The Tamil Nadu DR MGR Medical University, Ragas Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Prosthodontics and Implantology, Ragas Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Dr. Hariharan Ramakrishnan
Department of Prosthodontics and Implantology, Ragas Dental College and Hospital, Uthandi, Chennai - 600 119, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ccd.ccd_258_19

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) used as an implant material after surface modification by electron beam deposition of titanium. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two samples of PEEK were obtained from a single manufacturer, water jet sectioned, and divided randomly into two groups of eleven each (Group I and Group II). Eleven PEEK samples from Group II were coated with Grade II commercially pure titanium by electron beam deposition technique. One representative sample from each group was evaluated for surface roughness, topography and composition using three dimensional surface profilometer, scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis. Simulated body fluid (SBF) was prepared and calcium (Ca) content in it was quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. Ten samples from each group were then immersed in SBF for a period of 21 days and amount of calcium depletion was analyzed to determine the bioactivity of two groups. Surface characteristics and elemental composition of immersed samples were analyzed by SEM-EDX and correlated with results of ICP-MS tests. The data obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis using independent t-test. Results: Group II samples showed a significant increase in surface roughness compared to Group I (P < 0.02). There were significant differences in Ca depletion of Group I and Group II samples when compared to preimmersion Ca content (P < 0.001). When compared between two Groups, Group II samples showed higher Ca depletion (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that PEEK dental implants which were surface modified by electron beam deposition of titanium had enhanced bioactivity when compared to unmodified PEEK. Hence, they can serve as a valuable alternative to conventional dental implant materials.

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